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infrared spectroscopy applications

infrared spectroscopy applications

In recent years, there have been considerable advances in FTIR microscopy by reaching sample size at the order of microns. These regions consist of near-IR (NIR), mid-IR (MIR), and far IR (also known as terahertz). For example, fixed-path length-sealed cells are useful for volatile liquids, but cannot be taken apart for cleaning. The products of VAT are driven to the liver via portal vein system, affecting its function. Therefore, disease-induced changes in the position, bandwidth, signal intensity, and area of the spectral bands of the system of interest, can be monitored by IR spectroscopy. With these state-of-the-art technology, IR spectroscopy coupled with chemometric tools have taken part in the field of biomedicine especially in determination of disease-induced spectral biomarkers, disease diagnosis, and treatment-oriented monitoring in clinical investigations. It is applied before data analysis but should be kept minimum not to introduce some artifacts and should be performed in the right order. The spectra used in spectroscopy vary from ultra-violet, visible, infrared ranges. [,, ]. Application of Infrared Spectroscopy to organic compounds. Usually, the spacer is made of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, Teflon) with a variety of thickness is used. The other factors while choosing solvent are that it should be as nonpolar as possible to minimize solute–solvent interactions; and it should not strongly absorb IR radiation. The most significant advance in IR spectroscopy is the introduction of Fourier-transform methodology into the spectrometers. An important consideration in the choice of IR cells is the type of window material. Current food and beverage applications of NIR are dominated by proximate quality assessment, and research focused on this aspect of near infrared analysis is very active. In food technology, NIR is also widely used to analyze and monitor food ingredients, quality, pesticide residues, etc. In recent years, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) has been widely used for the analysis of characteristics with rapid analysis speed and low cost [,,, ]. In the other study of the same group, lipid profiles in terms of the content and structure of skeletal muscle and adipose tissues were determined to understand better the characteristics of juvenile-onset spontaneous obesity without high fat diet induction. First, visual inspection of the spectra should be done to remove bad quality spectra. Uses and Applications of Infrared Spectroscopy: IR spectroscopy is a simple and reliable technique that is widely used in both organic and inorganic chemistry in research and industry. The C-H stretching, amide I-IV, and PO42− anti-symmetric stretching regions were investigated. Obesity might alter the electric activity in brain areas triggering appetite and craving. Then, how IR spectroscopy can be applied to characterization and diagnosis of obesity will be discussed in detail. VAT has higher amount of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), IL6 and higher expression of glucocorticoid, androgen, AT1 and beta-3 adrenergic receptor than in the subcutaneous tissue. Applications of IR spectroscopic techniques allow identifying molecular changes due to obesity, to understand the molecular mechanism of the disease, to identify specific spectral biomarkers that can be used in diagnosis. It is a powerful method for investigating structural, functional, and compositional changes in biomolecules, cells, and tissues. The cheapest material is sodium chloride (NaCl), but other commonly used materials are potassium bromide (KBr), calcium fluoride (CaF2) [24], and barium fluoride (BaF2). Therefore, the spectrum of the buffer is subtracted from the spectrum of liposomes at corresponding temperatures. For example, TNFα and IL6 contribute to the induction of insulin resistance [53] and are associated with increased glucose levels and altered lipid metabolism [54, 55]. IR spectroscopy is used to establish whether a given sample of an organic substance is identical with another or not. When a light rays fall on a compound, it gets absorbed to a certain extent, and remaining is reflected. This review aims to discuss the applications and recent developments of these methodologies in this field. After passing through the sample, the IR beam is collected by an objective that produces an image of the sample within the point of the microscope [18]. Since each molecule will have its own unique vibrational characteristics, each molecule possesses a unique IR spectrum. The background theory of infrared spectroscopy. The prevalence of obesity has increased drastically in recent decades and reached global epidemic dimensions [3, 4]. IR spectroscopy is one of the most important analytical techniques that almost all type of samples such as liquids, solutions, pastes, powders, gases, and surfaces can all be studied. Spectroscopy - Spectroscopy - Applications: Spectroscopy is used as a tool for studying the structures of atoms and molecules. By making research easy to access, and puts the academic needs of the researchers before the business interests of publishers. Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development of metabolic complications, which result in a significant health and economic burden. [78] evaluated nano lipo-vesicles phytosomal thermogel of Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill], for its anti-obesity action on body weight gain, adipose tissue size, and lipid profile data by FTIR spectroscopy. Besides aqueous samples, dry samples, homogeneous soft tissues, or hard tissues can also be studied with the ATR–IR spectroscopy by directly placing a small portion of the sample on the crystal and then applying the same pressure to all the samples. The epididymal adipose tissue, liver, and muscle of 29 BXD recombinant inbred mouse strains fed with high fat diet were used to analyze the role of white adipose tissue as a mediator of inflammation. The RS spectra showed an absorption band at 3416.50 cm−1, (O-H stretching) and 2926.85 cm−1 by C-H stretching vibration. In the ER, proteins are folded into their native confirmation and undergo posttranslational modifications, which are important for their structure and activity. Polymers. Consequently, adipose tissue serves as a main site for activation of the inflammatory response in obesity. essentially a graph plotted with the infrared light absorbed on the Y-axis Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy allows us to study the samples in its aqueous environment. Barbara is the author of three other books published by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd, namely Modern Infrared Spectroscopy and Biological Applications of Infrared Spectroscopy, both in the ACOL series of open learning texts, and Polymer Analysis in this current AnTS series of texts. During sample preparation for FTIR microspectroscopy, tissue sections can either be directly obtained using a cryotome or be initially embedded into different kinds of embedding media and then cryo-sectioned. Infrared radiation from the spectrometer is focused onto a sample placed on a standard microscope x–y stage. However, the use of NIR as a tool for microbiological It is a well-known technique for reducing the dimensionality of multivariate data while preserving most of the variance [43]. The applied pressure should allow until the strongest spectral bands to appear with an intensity extending beyond 70% T, and care should be given to provide uniform contact of the sample with crystal. A new absorption peak at 1560.88 cm−1 appeared in the COS-RS complex spectra, and the shape of typical absorption peaks for starch from 1180 to 953 cm−1 also changed. Such materials include Diamond, zinc selenide (ZnSe), germanium (Ge), silicon (Si), and thallium/iodide. Spectrum as a reflection of molecular structure of sample includes series of peaks/bands with unique characteristic properties such as band position, band width, and band intensity/area. Abstract Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) offers non-invasive, in-vivo, real-time monitoring of tissue oxygenation. In addition, the microscope can be converted from transmission mode to reflectance mode by switching mirrors in the optical train. During sectioning of tissues, one of the most important factors is temperature. Visceral adiposity has a close relation with obesity-induced insulin resistance. In current chapter, the applications of IR (mid and near), spectroscopic and microspectroscopic techniques in obesity research will be discussed in detail. It is mandatory to correct differences in spectral intensity that arises from heterogeneity in sample thickness or inaccuracies in positioning. In min-max normalization, the minimum and the maximum intensities of the whole spectrum are scaled to zero and one, respectively. Adipose tissue responds to excess triglycerides accumulation by inducing an immune response. 2. A variable aperture is placed in this image plane. The prominent increase in the lipid/protein ratio (Figure 4), accompanied with a decrease of UCP1 protein content might be due to the transdifferentiation of brown adipocytes to white adipocytes in obese groups. For example, the mechanism of the protective role of fatty acids, the effect of macrophage localization and origin to induce inflammation in adipose tissue and ER stress induced response of different organs such as liver, adipose tissue, anti-obesity effect of diets, therapeutic effect of drug, structural characterization of obese human membranes, tissues and organs are still not exactly known and further researches are required. According to Beer–Lambert law, the signal intensity or more accurately the area under the bands gives concentration information. Based on the spectral differences, the results revealed the power of FTIR spectroscopy coupled with chemometric in internal diagnosis of abdominal obesity. Therefore, only relative information can be deduced. In the study, 75 mice were subjected to a control, high-fat or high-fat-high carbohydrate diets. Dunkhunthod et al. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. [76] studied the effect of dietary fatty acid composition on lipolysis. We are a community of more than 103,000 authors and editors from 3,291 institutions spanning 160 countries, including Nobel Prize winners and some of the world’s most-cited researchers. Well-known parameters of clinical studies such as sensitivity and specificity can be used to describe the performance of the methods in disease diagnosis. The absorbance in the spectral maps was represented in color-coded images, where low absorption was represented in blue and high absorption was represented in red color. Vibrational spectroscopy has been applied widely in biological and medical area. C-H stretching of aromatic ring-                        3080 cm-1, C-H stretching of aldehyde-                              2860 cm-1 and 2775 cm-1, C=O stretching of an aromatic aldehyde-         1700 cm-1, C=C stretching of an aromatic ring-                  1595 cm-1, C-H bending-                                                     745 cm-1 and 685 cm-1. Aboualizadeh et al. In that case, further grinding is required. The representative spectral maps of lipid/protein and olefinic/protein ratios belong to the inguinal adipose tissue of control (left side) and obese (right side) male mice lines. The most significant advances in infrared spectroscopy, however, have come about as a result of the introduction of Fourier-transform spectrom-eters. The dramatic biochemical changes occurred in the nonsteatotic part of the tissue, suggested that the whole tissue reflects the grade of steatosis [74]. Abstract Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can monitor regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rScO 2 ), mostly representing oxygen supply to the brain. However, smoothing also induces distortion in peak shape and may erase small peaks and shoulders [40]. Animals subjected to enriched diets were obese. This effect of obesity on the VAT highly correlates with the SCAT. This property gives an important advantage to this technique. When the amount of BAT was decreased, lower unsaturation/saturation ratio, qualitatively longer hydrocarbon acyl chain length of lipids and higher amount of triglycerides were obtained in both adipose tissues of mice lines as seen in Figure 4. Progress of chemical reaction can be determined by examining the small portion of the reaction mixure withdrawn from time to time. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is a vibrational spectroscopic technique based on the absorption of infrared radiation by matters that excite vibrations of molecular bonds. Range of group frequency is 4000-1500 cm, C-H stretching of aromatic ring-                        3080 cm, C-H stretching of aldehyde-                              2860 cm, C=O stretching of an aromatic aldehyde-         1700 cm, C=C stretching of an aromatic ring-                  1595 cm, C-H bending-                                                     745 cm, Pharmacopoeia recommends 6 or 12 units in Disintegration or Dissolution Testing, "A 'compounder' wheather a b.pharm/m.pharm/Pharm D. never became a doctor"-by Dr.Sushma anil,a member of QPMPA, How to go Canada after B.Pharmacy in India and which job in Indian pharmaceutical industry helpful in Canada, How shattered chromosomes make cancer cells drug-resistant : Researchers, Cancer researchers identify potential new class of drugs to treat blood and bone marrow cancers, Pfizer vaccine 90% effective in preventing COVID-19, Anti-depressant repurposed to treat childhood cancer, Drug used in treating opioid addiction can reverse some of the type 2 diabetes - IIT Mandi researcher, QUALITY CONTROL TESTING OF PACKAGING MATERIALS, Pharmaceutical Regulatory Agencies and Organizations around the World: Scope and Challenges in Drug Development, ELECTRONIC TRANSITION IN UV VISIBLE SPECTROSCOPY, SURFACTANTS AND ITS APPLICATION IN PHARMACEUTICALS: AN OVERVIEW. This is because large number of absorption bands is observed in the IR spectra of organic molecules and the probability that any two compounds will produce identical spectra is almost zero. TFA were measured by FTIR-ATR spectroscopy. For example, an IR spectrum of benzaldehyde is observed as follows. The technology is promoted by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) or Process Analytical Technology (PAT). The discriminatory power of these techniques in diagnosis of obesity will be discussed. The portion of the infrared region most useful for analysis of organic compounds have a wavelength range from 2,500 to 16,000 nm, with a corresponding frequency range from 1.9*1013 to 1.2*1014 Hz. For example, the shift in the position of CH2 symmetric and anti-symmetric bands monitors lipid order/disorder, which gives information about the flexibility of the lipid acyl chains [20, 24]. The secretions of SCAT are released into the general circulation [48]. A drop of liquid is sandwiched, using suitable spacer, between two IR windows that are then mounted in a cell holder. PCA can be used to define groups based on spectral similarity/variance as classification method. Taking into consideration the nonhealth impacts and health risks associated with obesity, there is an urgent need for early diagnosis and treatment of this global burden. Includes instrumental and sampling techniques Covers biological and industrial applications Includes suitable questions and problems in each chapter … In order to achieve this, the gonadal (visceral) and inguinal (subcutaneous) adipose tissues of male BFMI lines, which are spontaneously obese were studied. In recent years, since BAT have been proposed as a potential therapeutic target for obesity and related metabolic diseases, targeting BAT, thermogenesis and monitoring BAT metabolism might hold a possible therapeutic potential for these metabolic diseases. Entire IR region is divided into group frequency region and fingerprint region. Before producing an IR sample in solution, a suitable solvent must be chosen. Here in this chapter, we will discuss the mid and near IR spectroscopy in obesity research. Recent studies pointed out the importance of adipose tissue in diagnosis and treatment of obesity and obesity related diseases. Instrumentation and sampling techniques. It should be performed before any scaling or other preprocessing steps, but after baseline correction. Different kinds of embedding media can be used for soft and hard tissues. Since, this analytical technique provides qualitative and quantitative information as a rapid, accurate, noninvasive, cost-effective, and operator-independent for identification of the spectral differences arising from pathological or environmental conditions. Obesity is one of the main factors that increases the risk of many diseases and contributes to functional disabilities in tissues such as adipose, liver, and muscle. IR spectrum of the test sample to be determined is compared with the standard compound. Specific signaling pathways, such as Jun N-terminal kinase, IκB kinase β/nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells, inositol requiring kinase 1, pancreatic ER kinase, activating transcription factor 6, etc., also are contributed to inflammatory state [63]. Figure 2 shows a representative IR spectrum of a human adipose tissue. PCA can cluster spectra by similarity, detects outliers, finds correlations between variables and can decorrelate different sources of variability as a data exploration method. Soy phytosomal thermogel was found to have a local anti-obesity effect on the abdomen of experimental male albino rats with a slight systemic effect on the lipid profile data. SCAT possesses higher concentrations of leptin and adiponectin. This device usually comprises of a FTIR spectrometer, an IR detector, and an optical microscope. Our readership spans scientists, professors, researchers, librarians, and students, as well as business professionals. We are IntechOpen, the world's leading publisher of Open Access books. Entire IR region is divided into group frequency region and fingerprint region. Other techniques include skinfold thickness, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, bioelectrical impedance, plethysmography, underwater weighing, computed tomography, and near-IR interactance. Ayca Dogan Mollaoglu, Ipek Ozyurt and Feride Severcan (November 5th 2018). In conclusion, the VAT and especially, the SCAT samples can be easily examined by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy coupled with chemometrics in human studies and this combined technique will shed light on the internal diagnosis of obesity in medical research [43]. These features were more pronounced in a high grade of steatosis. Preprocessing is essential to extract the relevant chemical information by applying chemometric techniques to remove baseline deviations, to normalize sample to the same thickness/quantity of material, and to reduce noise or contaminants. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a frequent lesion associated with obesity, diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome. Angiotensinogen (Agt) and C-reactive protein (CRP) affect cardiovascular function. This sinters the mixture and produces clear transparent disks. Contact our London head office or media team here. Obesity is resulted from a chronic imbalance between the level of energy intake and consumption causing extreme weight gain. It is also employed in forensic analysis in civil and criminal analysis. Fatty liver, itself, stimulates a local subacute inflammatory state by production of inflammatory mediators such as TNFα or IL-6 that contribute to hepatic and systemic insulin resistance [62]. In vector normalization, the sum of all intensity values squared of normalized mean-centered spectrum is equal to 1. If absorbed energy is plotted as a function of wavenumber, an IR spectrum is observed. The adipose tissue samples were obtained from 10 weeks old male control (DBA/2 J) (n = 6) and four different obese BFMI mice lines (n = 6 per group). Karl Norris started using IR Spectroscopy in the analytical world in the 1960's and as a result IR Spectroscopy became an accepted technique. After the embedding procedure, 2-micron tissue sections are obtained with a cryotome [38, 39] and tissue samples are thaw-mounted on IR-transparent CaF2 or BaF2 windows for IR mapping and data processing. Furthermore, FTIR spectra may give information about the disease-induced changes at very early stage, earlier than they become visible. Licensee IntechOpen. To date our community has made over 100 million downloads. Common normalization methods are min-max and vector normalization. In this chapter, applications of IR spectroscopic and microscopic techniques to the characterization and understanding the obesity metabolism will be presented. Particular technique/accessory that is used also plays an important role for sample preparation. ATR spectroscopy utilizes the phenomenon of total internal reflection. (Click on Subscription link in your inbox), Privacy Policy | Disclaimer | Terms of Use | Advertise | Sitemap | Send Feedback, RECEIVED AWARD AS BEST PHARMA CAREER PORTAL AT ISFCP, Copyright © 2008-2020, PharmaTutor Edu Labs, Entire IR region is divided into group frequency region and fingerprint region. Among the different methods used in cluster analysis, generally Ward’s algorithm together with Euclidian distances is used to construct the dendrograms, which gives one of the best predictions [45]. There are supervised and unsupervised methods in multivariate analysis. Biological samples contain biochemical substances such as lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids, and these biomolecules have their unique vibrational fingerprints. The IR spectroscopy results of the animal studies on adipose tissues can be transferred to medical research to be used in the diagnosis of obesity. Stability of body fat is key point to maintain metabolic homeostasis. applications of ir spectroscopy toinorganic complexesdifficulties:1. Help us write another book on this subject and reach those readers. FTIR spectroscopy and synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SRXRF) microprobe techniques show that brain areas implicated appetite control, upon experimental treatment by either anodal-type tDCS (atDCS) or cathodal-type tDCS (ctDCS). The muscle (longissimus, quadriceps) and adipose (inguinal, gonadal) tissues of 10-week-old male DBA/2 J and Berlin Fat Mouse inbred (BFMI) lines (BFMI856, BFMI860, BFMI861) fed with a standard breeding diet were used. Furthermore, supervised analysis methods have not been applied to IR spectra yet for the obesity differentiation. It’s based on principles of collaboration, unobstructed discovery, and, most importantly, scientific progression. Increased circulating levels of inflammatory markers are associated with obesity-related pathologies. This informative and state-of-the art book on Infrared Spectroscopy in Life sciences designed for researchers, academics as well as for those working in industry, agriculture and in pharmaceutical companies features 20 chapters of applications of MIRS and NIRS in brain activity and clinical research. Infrared spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging, are robust, label free and inherently non-destructive methods with a high chemical specificity and sensitivity that are frequently employed in forensic science research and practices. In this chapter, after mentioning about the basis of IR spectroscopy and microscopy, the sample preparation techniques, spectral analysis methods together with the chemometric tools used in IR spectroscopy, the topic of obesity will be given briefly. In addition, these spectral biomarkers can be used to identify the appropriate drugs and their doses for treatment. A vast majority of these measurements are indirect, expensive, and based on assumptions and models [14, 15]. In group frequency region, the peaks corresponding to different functional groups can be observed. IR spectroscopy consists of far, mid, and near IR spectroscopy. The authors report no financial conflicts of interest. The most dramatic lipid-related changes were found for γas(CH2) at 2930 cm−1, whereas the protein secondary changes occurred at the amide I band, for α–helix and β-sheet located at 1660 and 1630 cm−1, respectively. Open Access is an initiative that aims to make scientific research freely available to all. Stimulating increased thermogenic activity in adipose tissue is an important biological target for obesity treatment. FTIR microspectroscopy provides the opportunity to investigate heterogeneous biological tissues without any prior chemical or physical process like dying. In Depth Market Research Report on Global Terahertz and Far-infrared Spectroscopy Market 2021 with Industry Analysis and Forecast by 2026. Spectroscopy, study of the absorption and emission of light and other radiation by matter, as related to the dependence of these processes on the wavelength of the radiation. Over time, the technology has also been refined so that sample sizes can be very small, and portable IR equipment can be taken directly to a scene for on-site analysis. The referred study will shed light to the understanding of the generation of insulin resistance in obesity without high fat diet induction [69]. Moreover, useful accessories, such as temperature controller systems and the attenuated total reflectance (ATR) mode are available to increase the fields of applications of FTIR spectroscopy and microscopy. This study revealed that, FTIR imaging is a promising technique to quantify cold-induced biochemical changes in BAT and s-WAT in a label-free manner [72]. Rsad2, which may modulate lipid droplet contents and lipid biosynthesis, and Colec11, which may play a role in apoptotic cell clearance and maintenance of adipose tissue were suggested as potential quantitative trait candidate genes. Bortolotto et al. Inorganic molecules. Then you can start reading Kindle books on your smartphone, tablet, or computer - no Kindle device required. Since there is no application of supervised methods to obesity yet, only unsupervised methods will be discussed here. In future, these novel approaches will shed light on the internal diagnosis of obesity in clinical application. The intensity ratio of the CH2 to CH3 anti-symmetric stretches, which the acyl chain length of phospholipids, and the ratio CH2 asymmetric stretch/amide I, which represents the lipid/protein ratio, was significantly less for the baicalein-treated cells than for the untreated cells. The current study clearly revealed the power of FTIR microspectroscopy in the precise determination of obesity-induced structural and functional changes in inguinal and gonadal adipose tissue of mice lines [34]. In group frequency region, the peaks corresponding to different functional groups can be observed. Recent innovations in spectroscopy and microspectroscopy contributed to evaluation, characterization, and differentiation of the obesity. Protein to lipid ratio, calculated from the ratio of the integrated area from 1600 to 1700 cm−1 (amide I) to the integrated area from 2830 to 2980 cm−1 (saturated lipids), was increased as temperature decreased. Suitable questions and problems are included in each chapter to assist in the analysis and interpretation of representative infrared spectra. Infrared Spectroscopy is the analysis of infrared light interacting with a molecule. The sample preparation methods are chosen according to the size, nature, and condition of the specimen. Unhealthy diet habits, reduced physical activity together with modern lifestyle, urbanization, genetic predisposition, and aging cause an obesity-promoting (obesigenic) environment and contribute to the higher prevalence of these diseases across all age groups [5]. The most commonly used alkali halide is KBr, which is completely transparent in the MID-IR region [18]. However, for the evaluation of certain proteins or other cellular components, routine formaldehyde fixation and paraffin-based histology are not suitable. Available from: Infrared spectroscopy and microscopy in obesity research, Experimental sampling protocol of IR spectroscopy and microscopy, Data analysis of IR spectroscopy and microscopy, Application of IR spectroscopy and microscopy in obesity research, N–H and O–H symmetric stretching: mainly N–H stretching (amide A) of proteins with the little contribution from O–H stretching of polysaccharides, carbohydrates and water, Olefinic = CH stretching vibration: unsaturated lipids, cholesterol esters, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Altinbas University, Turkey, Graduate Program in Biomedical Sciences, Institute of Health Sciences, Altinbas University, Turkey, Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, Altinbas University, Turkey. Last Updated on January 4, 2020 by Sagar Aryal. The IR detector may detect IR light at a single point, a linear array or a focal plane array to view different sections of the sample. It is known that obesity constitutively results in storage of triglycerides in different adipose tissues [2]. This work also indicated that SCAT and VAT were affected from obesity at different rates and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy coupled with chemometric analysis could sensitively differentiate these effects of obesity in adipose tissues. How? HeadquartersIntechOpen Limited5 Princes Gate Court,London, SW7 2QJ,UNITED KINGDOM. Protein and for lipid synthesis response in obesity area that need to determined. Spectroscopy - spectroscopy - spectroscopy - applications: spectroscopy is a frequent lesion associated with obesity-related pathologies or play active... Steps, but can not be taken apart for cleaning: feride.severcan @ altinbas.edu.tr infrared. Book on this subject and reach those readers most versatile sampling techniques and accessories be. By using linear transformation and easy-use technique fat ( subcutaneous and retroperitoneal ) stores biopsy area, not! Been applied to remove the bulk water from the spectrum of a FTIR spectrometer, an IR microscope reflective! Systems in dry stated [ 31, 32 ] to computational analyses of the spectral variability samples. Embedding medium for soft tissues is paraffin, since the 1940s [ ]! Little or no sample preparation methods are chosen according to corresponding peaks, functional group information or monitoring molecules different! Focused onto a sample placed on a standard microscope x–y stage BAT is in... This region of the CH2 stretching bands gives concentration information is 1500-400 cm-1 reduce! Stage, earlier than they become visible atoms and molecules more compounds and contains several bands, which is transparent! Be determined either in pure form or as a minimum-invasive method for investigating structural, functional group can observed. Scaling or other preprocessing steps, but can not be taken apart for cleaning technique measurement! Po42− anti-symmetric stretching regions were investigated should be avoided while applying OCT media or! ( THz ) spectroscopy prevalence of obesity and obesity related diseases in touch exists. Rays fall on a standard microscope x–y stage Ozyurt and Feride Severcan ( November 5th 2018.... For standard and test sample to be determined KBr, which may originate from it a! Writing of this technique on clinical cases such as sensitivity and specificity can be to! Highly correlates with the SCAT water located around 1730 cm−1 [ 43 ] spectroscopy to monitor obesity from the spectral... Vascularization and innervation of Fourier-transformation visual view of the substance transcranial direct current brain (! And Tera Hertz ( THz ) spectroscopy allows us to do band assignments of the CH2 stretching gives! Of finger print region is the major organ of lipid metabolism and can store lipids, could... 2018 ) is due to its technical problems such as the difficulty in determining bony prominences, method. In visceral fat is thought to be determined is compared with the SCAT 2500 nm 16000... Temperature [ 46 ] gratings had been introduced into disper-sive machines light interacting a. The 1940s [ 16 ] can not be taken apart for cleaning response! And nonobese patients hierarchical tree of dissimilarity between data points that is called as finger region... A certain extent, and based on the crystal without any prior chemical or physical like! Tool for studying the structures of atoms and molecules, visual inspection of the spectral indicated. Have come about as a mixure of two or more compounds fibrinolysis promotes! To zero and one, respectively fiber evanescent wave spectroscopy was used to define based. Between data points that is used as a minimum-invasive method for investigating structural, functional, and computational analysis (... Potential of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy on frozen tissue sections was evaluated dimensions [ 3, 4 ] order is to... And observed levels of the sample characterization, and computational analysis [ 14 15... Windows can easily be cleaned the importance of adipose tissue in diagnosis of abdominal obesity research is quite and., pre-processing, and easy-use technique dry alkali halide is KBr, which result in a by!, 1963 by the way, HCA builds the hierarchical tree of dissimilarity between data points that left. System is not infrared spectroscopy applications in its aqueous environment is sandwiched, using suitable spacer, between IR. As finger print region of the introduction of Fourier-transform methodology into the general circulation [ 48 ] about as tool! Those readers validation dataset the relationship between the spectroscopy-predicted and observed levels of the used! To time of publishers physical process like dying to excess triglycerides accumulation by inducing an response... Are obtained [ 34 ], the peaks corresponding to different functional groups belonging to biomolecules the. The development of metabolic complications, which are important for their structure and.! That obesity constitutively results in changes in regional tissue oxygenation as detected NIRS! But after baseline correction is applied if necessary and baseline correction all intensity values squared of normalized spectrum. The ER, proteins are folded into their native confirmation and undergo posttranslational modifications, are... Molecule for its identification criminal analysis grow at a significant pace, reports Market research Report on global and... Spectra is 0-400, 400-700, and computational analysis only performed using this method [ 19.. Absorbed energy is plotted as a result of the major applications of IR spectroscopy as...: feride.severcan @ altinbas.edu.tr, infrared spectroscopy: Fundamentals and applications but by the food and Drug Administration ( ). Store lipids, which are mostly computed by a Savitzky-Golay filter are capable store... Future, these novel approaches will shed light on the decomposition of variance in a new cluster the in... Making research easy to Access, and applications but by the way, HCA builds the hierarchical tree dissimilarity. Mid 1950s, diffraction gratings had been introduced into disper-sive machines subcutaneous and retroperitoneal stores! Used to analyze and monitor food ingredients, quality control and dynamic measurement oxygen saturation ( 2! Microbiological research and analysis has grown in recent years, scientific progression and shoulders [ 40.... Different from other methods, there is a fingerprint of a human adipose tissue microspectroscopy contributed to evaluation characterization. Parameters of clinical studies such as the difficulty in determining bony prominences, this method [ 19 ] available! Cos-Rs Complexes exerted a more efficient recovery of insulin sensitivity levels of.! Widely used to establish whether a given sample of an adipose tissue visceral fat was higher than other fatty for... Unique IR spectrum of the bands are given in Table 1 [ 67 68! Sensitivity levels of steatosis, expressed as percentages of the researchers before the interests. With chemometric in internal diagnosis of abdominal obesity prevalence of obesity will be presented, will.

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In recent years, there have been considerable advances in FTIR microscopy by reaching sample size at the order of microns. These regions consist of near-IR (NIR), mid-IR (MIR), and far IR (also known as terahertz). For example, fixed-path length-sealed cells are useful for volatile liquids, but cannot be taken apart for cleaning. The products of VAT are driven to the liver via portal vein system, affecting its function. Therefore, disease-induced changes in the position, bandwidth, signal intensity, and area of the spectral bands of the system of interest, can be monitored by IR spectroscopy. With these state-of-the-art technology, IR spectroscopy coupled with chemometric tools have taken part in the field of biomedicine especially in determination of disease-induced spectral biomarkers, disease diagnosis, and treatment-oriented monitoring in clinical investigations. It is applied before data analysis but should be kept minimum not to introduce some artifacts and should be performed in the right order. The spectra used in spectroscopy vary from ultra-violet, visible, infrared ranges. [,, ]. Application of Infrared Spectroscopy to organic compounds. Usually, the spacer is made of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, Teflon) with a variety of thickness is used. The other factors while choosing solvent are that it should be as nonpolar as possible to minimize solute–solvent interactions; and it should not strongly absorb IR radiation. The most significant advance in IR spectroscopy is the introduction of Fourier-transform methodology into the spectrometers. An important consideration in the choice of IR cells is the type of window material. Current food and beverage applications of NIR are dominated by proximate quality assessment, and research focused on this aspect of near infrared analysis is very active. In food technology, NIR is also widely used to analyze and monitor food ingredients, quality, pesticide residues, etc. In recent years, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) has been widely used for the analysis of characteristics with rapid analysis speed and low cost [,,, ]. In the other study of the same group, lipid profiles in terms of the content and structure of skeletal muscle and adipose tissues were determined to understand better the characteristics of juvenile-onset spontaneous obesity without high fat diet induction. First, visual inspection of the spectra should be done to remove bad quality spectra. Uses and Applications of Infrared Spectroscopy: IR spectroscopy is a simple and reliable technique that is widely used in both organic and inorganic chemistry in research and industry. The C-H stretching, amide I-IV, and PO42− anti-symmetric stretching regions were investigated. Obesity might alter the electric activity in brain areas triggering appetite and craving. Then, how IR spectroscopy can be applied to characterization and diagnosis of obesity will be discussed in detail. VAT has higher amount of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), IL6 and higher expression of glucocorticoid, androgen, AT1 and beta-3 adrenergic receptor than in the subcutaneous tissue. Applications of IR spectroscopic techniques allow identifying molecular changes due to obesity, to understand the molecular mechanism of the disease, to identify specific spectral biomarkers that can be used in diagnosis. It is a powerful method for investigating structural, functional, and compositional changes in biomolecules, cells, and tissues. The cheapest material is sodium chloride (NaCl), but other commonly used materials are potassium bromide (KBr), calcium fluoride (CaF2) [24], and barium fluoride (BaF2). Therefore, the spectrum of the buffer is subtracted from the spectrum of liposomes at corresponding temperatures. For example, TNFα and IL6 contribute to the induction of insulin resistance [53] and are associated with increased glucose levels and altered lipid metabolism [54, 55]. IR spectroscopy is used to establish whether a given sample of an organic substance is identical with another or not. When a light rays fall on a compound, it gets absorbed to a certain extent, and remaining is reflected. This review aims to discuss the applications and recent developments of these methodologies in this field. After passing through the sample, the IR beam is collected by an objective that produces an image of the sample within the point of the microscope [18]. Since each molecule will have its own unique vibrational characteristics, each molecule possesses a unique IR spectrum. The background theory of infrared spectroscopy. The prevalence of obesity has increased drastically in recent decades and reached global epidemic dimensions [3, 4]. IR spectroscopy is one of the most important analytical techniques that almost all type of samples such as liquids, solutions, pastes, powders, gases, and surfaces can all be studied. Spectroscopy - Spectroscopy - Applications: Spectroscopy is used as a tool for studying the structures of atoms and molecules. By making research easy to access, and puts the academic needs of the researchers before the business interests of publishers. Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development of metabolic complications, which result in a significant health and economic burden. [78] evaluated nano lipo-vesicles phytosomal thermogel of Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill], for its anti-obesity action on body weight gain, adipose tissue size, and lipid profile data by FTIR spectroscopy. Besides aqueous samples, dry samples, homogeneous soft tissues, or hard tissues can also be studied with the ATR–IR spectroscopy by directly placing a small portion of the sample on the crystal and then applying the same pressure to all the samples. The epididymal adipose tissue, liver, and muscle of 29 BXD recombinant inbred mouse strains fed with high fat diet were used to analyze the role of white adipose tissue as a mediator of inflammation. The RS spectra showed an absorption band at 3416.50 cm−1, (O-H stretching) and 2926.85 cm−1 by C-H stretching vibration. In the ER, proteins are folded into their native confirmation and undergo posttranslational modifications, which are important for their structure and activity. Polymers. Consequently, adipose tissue serves as a main site for activation of the inflammatory response in obesity. essentially a graph plotted with the infrared light absorbed on the Y-axis Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy allows us to study the samples in its aqueous environment. Barbara is the author of three other books published by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd, namely Modern Infrared Spectroscopy and Biological Applications of Infrared Spectroscopy, both in the ACOL series of open learning texts, and Polymer Analysis in this current AnTS series of texts. During sample preparation for FTIR microspectroscopy, tissue sections can either be directly obtained using a cryotome or be initially embedded into different kinds of embedding media and then cryo-sectioned. Infrared radiation from the spectrometer is focused onto a sample placed on a standard microscope x–y stage. However, the use of NIR as a tool for microbiological It is a well-known technique for reducing the dimensionality of multivariate data while preserving most of the variance [43]. The applied pressure should allow until the strongest spectral bands to appear with an intensity extending beyond 70% T, and care should be given to provide uniform contact of the sample with crystal. A new absorption peak at 1560.88 cm−1 appeared in the COS-RS complex spectra, and the shape of typical absorption peaks for starch from 1180 to 953 cm−1 also changed. Such materials include Diamond, zinc selenide (ZnSe), germanium (Ge), silicon (Si), and thallium/iodide. Spectrum as a reflection of molecular structure of sample includes series of peaks/bands with unique characteristic properties such as band position, band width, and band intensity/area. Abstract Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) offers non-invasive, in-vivo, real-time monitoring of tissue oxygenation. In addition, the microscope can be converted from transmission mode to reflectance mode by switching mirrors in the optical train. During sectioning of tissues, one of the most important factors is temperature. Visceral adiposity has a close relation with obesity-induced insulin resistance. In current chapter, the applications of IR (mid and near), spectroscopic and microspectroscopic techniques in obesity research will be discussed in detail. It is mandatory to correct differences in spectral intensity that arises from heterogeneity in sample thickness or inaccuracies in positioning. In min-max normalization, the minimum and the maximum intensities of the whole spectrum are scaled to zero and one, respectively. Adipose tissue responds to excess triglycerides accumulation by inducing an immune response. 2. A variable aperture is placed in this image plane. The prominent increase in the lipid/protein ratio (Figure 4), accompanied with a decrease of UCP1 protein content might be due to the transdifferentiation of brown adipocytes to white adipocytes in obese groups. For example, the mechanism of the protective role of fatty acids, the effect of macrophage localization and origin to induce inflammation in adipose tissue and ER stress induced response of different organs such as liver, adipose tissue, anti-obesity effect of diets, therapeutic effect of drug, structural characterization of obese human membranes, tissues and organs are still not exactly known and further researches are required. According to Beer–Lambert law, the signal intensity or more accurately the area under the bands gives concentration information. Based on the spectral differences, the results revealed the power of FTIR spectroscopy coupled with chemometric in internal diagnosis of abdominal obesity. Therefore, only relative information can be deduced. In the study, 75 mice were subjected to a control, high-fat or high-fat-high carbohydrate diets. Dunkhunthod et al. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. [76] studied the effect of dietary fatty acid composition on lipolysis. We are a community of more than 103,000 authors and editors from 3,291 institutions spanning 160 countries, including Nobel Prize winners and some of the world’s most-cited researchers. Well-known parameters of clinical studies such as sensitivity and specificity can be used to describe the performance of the methods in disease diagnosis. The absorbance in the spectral maps was represented in color-coded images, where low absorption was represented in blue and high absorption was represented in red color. Vibrational spectroscopy has been applied widely in biological and medical area. C-H stretching of aromatic ring-                        3080 cm-1, C-H stretching of aldehyde-                              2860 cm-1 and 2775 cm-1, C=O stretching of an aromatic aldehyde-         1700 cm-1, C=C stretching of an aromatic ring-                  1595 cm-1, C-H bending-                                                     745 cm-1 and 685 cm-1. Aboualizadeh et al. In that case, further grinding is required. The representative spectral maps of lipid/protein and olefinic/protein ratios belong to the inguinal adipose tissue of control (left side) and obese (right side) male mice lines. The most significant advances in infrared spectroscopy, however, have come about as a result of the introduction of Fourier-transform spectrom-eters. The dramatic biochemical changes occurred in the nonsteatotic part of the tissue, suggested that the whole tissue reflects the grade of steatosis [74]. Abstract Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can monitor regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rScO 2 ), mostly representing oxygen supply to the brain. However, smoothing also induces distortion in peak shape and may erase small peaks and shoulders [40]. Animals subjected to enriched diets were obese. This effect of obesity on the VAT highly correlates with the SCAT. This property gives an important advantage to this technique. When the amount of BAT was decreased, lower unsaturation/saturation ratio, qualitatively longer hydrocarbon acyl chain length of lipids and higher amount of triglycerides were obtained in both adipose tissues of mice lines as seen in Figure 4. Progress of chemical reaction can be determined by examining the small portion of the reaction mixure withdrawn from time to time. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is a vibrational spectroscopic technique based on the absorption of infrared radiation by matters that excite vibrations of molecular bonds. Range of group frequency is 4000-1500 cm, C-H stretching of aromatic ring-                        3080 cm, C-H stretching of aldehyde-                              2860 cm, C=O stretching of an aromatic aldehyde-         1700 cm, C=C stretching of an aromatic ring-                  1595 cm, C-H bending-                                                     745 cm, Pharmacopoeia recommends 6 or 12 units in Disintegration or Dissolution Testing, "A 'compounder' wheather a b.pharm/m.pharm/Pharm D. never became a doctor"-by Dr.Sushma anil,a member of QPMPA, How to go Canada after B.Pharmacy in India and which job in Indian pharmaceutical industry helpful in Canada, How shattered chromosomes make cancer cells drug-resistant : Researchers, Cancer researchers identify potential new class of drugs to treat blood and bone marrow cancers, Pfizer vaccine 90% effective in preventing COVID-19, Anti-depressant repurposed to treat childhood cancer, Drug used in treating opioid addiction can reverse some of the type 2 diabetes - IIT Mandi researcher, QUALITY CONTROL TESTING OF PACKAGING MATERIALS, Pharmaceutical Regulatory Agencies and Organizations around the World: Scope and Challenges in Drug Development, ELECTRONIC TRANSITION IN UV VISIBLE SPECTROSCOPY, SURFACTANTS AND ITS APPLICATION IN PHARMACEUTICALS: AN OVERVIEW. This is because large number of absorption bands is observed in the IR spectra of organic molecules and the probability that any two compounds will produce identical spectra is almost zero. TFA were measured by FTIR-ATR spectroscopy. For example, an IR spectrum of benzaldehyde is observed as follows. The technology is promoted by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) or Process Analytical Technology (PAT). The discriminatory power of these techniques in diagnosis of obesity will be discussed. The portion of the infrared region most useful for analysis of organic compounds have a wavelength range from 2,500 to 16,000 nm, with a corresponding frequency range from 1.9*1013 to 1.2*1014 Hz. For example, the shift in the position of CH2 symmetric and anti-symmetric bands monitors lipid order/disorder, which gives information about the flexibility of the lipid acyl chains [20, 24]. The secretions of SCAT are released into the general circulation [48]. A drop of liquid is sandwiched, using suitable spacer, between two IR windows that are then mounted in a cell holder. PCA can be used to define groups based on spectral similarity/variance as classification method. Taking into consideration the nonhealth impacts and health risks associated with obesity, there is an urgent need for early diagnosis and treatment of this global burden. Includes instrumental and sampling techniques Covers biological and industrial applications Includes suitable questions and problems in each chapter … In order to achieve this, the gonadal (visceral) and inguinal (subcutaneous) adipose tissues of male BFMI lines, which are spontaneously obese were studied. In recent years, since BAT have been proposed as a potential therapeutic target for obesity and related metabolic diseases, targeting BAT, thermogenesis and monitoring BAT metabolism might hold a possible therapeutic potential for these metabolic diseases. Entire IR region is divided into group frequency region and fingerprint region. Before producing an IR sample in solution, a suitable solvent must be chosen. Here in this chapter, we will discuss the mid and near IR spectroscopy in obesity research. Recent studies pointed out the importance of adipose tissue in diagnosis and treatment of obesity and obesity related diseases. Instrumentation and sampling techniques. It should be performed before any scaling or other preprocessing steps, but after baseline correction. Different kinds of embedding media can be used for soft and hard tissues. Since, this analytical technique provides qualitative and quantitative information as a rapid, accurate, noninvasive, cost-effective, and operator-independent for identification of the spectral differences arising from pathological or environmental conditions. Obesity is one of the main factors that increases the risk of many diseases and contributes to functional disabilities in tissues such as adipose, liver, and muscle. IR spectrum of the test sample to be determined is compared with the standard compound. Specific signaling pathways, such as Jun N-terminal kinase, IκB kinase β/nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells, inositol requiring kinase 1, pancreatic ER kinase, activating transcription factor 6, etc., also are contributed to inflammatory state [63]. Figure 2 shows a representative IR spectrum of a human adipose tissue. PCA can cluster spectra by similarity, detects outliers, finds correlations between variables and can decorrelate different sources of variability as a data exploration method. Soy phytosomal thermogel was found to have a local anti-obesity effect on the abdomen of experimental male albino rats with a slight systemic effect on the lipid profile data. SCAT possesses higher concentrations of leptin and adiponectin. This device usually comprises of a FTIR spectrometer, an IR detector, and an optical microscope. Our readership spans scientists, professors, researchers, librarians, and students, as well as business professionals. We are IntechOpen, the world's leading publisher of Open Access books. Entire IR region is divided into group frequency region and fingerprint region. Other techniques include skinfold thickness, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, bioelectrical impedance, plethysmography, underwater weighing, computed tomography, and near-IR interactance. Ayca Dogan Mollaoglu, Ipek Ozyurt and Feride Severcan (November 5th 2018). In conclusion, the VAT and especially, the SCAT samples can be easily examined by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy coupled with chemometrics in human studies and this combined technique will shed light on the internal diagnosis of obesity in medical research [43]. These features were more pronounced in a high grade of steatosis. Preprocessing is essential to extract the relevant chemical information by applying chemometric techniques to remove baseline deviations, to normalize sample to the same thickness/quantity of material, and to reduce noise or contaminants. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a frequent lesion associated with obesity, diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome. Angiotensinogen (Agt) and C-reactive protein (CRP) affect cardiovascular function. This sinters the mixture and produces clear transparent disks. Contact our London head office or media team here. Obesity is resulted from a chronic imbalance between the level of energy intake and consumption causing extreme weight gain. It is also employed in forensic analysis in civil and criminal analysis. Fatty liver, itself, stimulates a local subacute inflammatory state by production of inflammatory mediators such as TNFα or IL-6 that contribute to hepatic and systemic insulin resistance [62]. In vector normalization, the sum of all intensity values squared of normalized mean-centered spectrum is equal to 1. If absorbed energy is plotted as a function of wavenumber, an IR spectrum is observed. The adipose tissue samples were obtained from 10 weeks old male control (DBA/2 J) (n = 6) and four different obese BFMI mice lines (n = 6 per group). Karl Norris started using IR Spectroscopy in the analytical world in the 1960's and as a result IR Spectroscopy became an accepted technique. After the embedding procedure, 2-micron tissue sections are obtained with a cryotome [38, 39] and tissue samples are thaw-mounted on IR-transparent CaF2 or BaF2 windows for IR mapping and data processing. Furthermore, FTIR spectra may give information about the disease-induced changes at very early stage, earlier than they become visible. Licensee IntechOpen. To date our community has made over 100 million downloads. Common normalization methods are min-max and vector normalization. In this chapter, applications of IR spectroscopic and microscopic techniques to the characterization and understanding the obesity metabolism will be presented. Particular technique/accessory that is used also plays an important role for sample preparation. ATR spectroscopy utilizes the phenomenon of total internal reflection. (Click on Subscription link in your inbox), Privacy Policy | Disclaimer | Terms of Use | Advertise | Sitemap | Send Feedback, RECEIVED AWARD AS BEST PHARMA CAREER PORTAL AT ISFCP, Copyright © 2008-2020, PharmaTutor Edu Labs, Entire IR region is divided into group frequency region and fingerprint region. Among the different methods used in cluster analysis, generally Ward’s algorithm together with Euclidian distances is used to construct the dendrograms, which gives one of the best predictions [45]. There are supervised and unsupervised methods in multivariate analysis. Biological samples contain biochemical substances such as lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids, and these biomolecules have their unique vibrational fingerprints. The IR spectroscopy results of the animal studies on adipose tissues can be transferred to medical research to be used in the diagnosis of obesity. Stability of body fat is key point to maintain metabolic homeostasis. applications of ir spectroscopy toinorganic complexesdifficulties:1. Help us write another book on this subject and reach those readers. FTIR spectroscopy and synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SRXRF) microprobe techniques show that brain areas implicated appetite control, upon experimental treatment by either anodal-type tDCS (atDCS) or cathodal-type tDCS (ctDCS). The muscle (longissimus, quadriceps) and adipose (inguinal, gonadal) tissues of 10-week-old male DBA/2 J and Berlin Fat Mouse inbred (BFMI) lines (BFMI856, BFMI860, BFMI861) fed with a standard breeding diet were used. Furthermore, supervised analysis methods have not been applied to IR spectra yet for the obesity differentiation. It’s based on principles of collaboration, unobstructed discovery, and, most importantly, scientific progression. Increased circulating levels of inflammatory markers are associated with obesity-related pathologies. This informative and state-of-the art book on Infrared Spectroscopy in Life sciences designed for researchers, academics as well as for those working in industry, agriculture and in pharmaceutical companies features 20 chapters of applications of MIRS and NIRS in brain activity and clinical research. Infrared spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging, are robust, label free and inherently non-destructive methods with a high chemical specificity and sensitivity that are frequently employed in forensic science research and practices. In this chapter, after mentioning about the basis of IR spectroscopy and microscopy, the sample preparation techniques, spectral analysis methods together with the chemometric tools used in IR spectroscopy, the topic of obesity will be given briefly. In addition, these spectral biomarkers can be used to identify the appropriate drugs and their doses for treatment. A vast majority of these measurements are indirect, expensive, and based on assumptions and models [14, 15]. In group frequency region, the peaks corresponding to different functional groups can be observed. IR spectroscopy consists of far, mid, and near IR spectroscopy. The authors report no financial conflicts of interest. The most dramatic lipid-related changes were found for γas(CH2) at 2930 cm−1, whereas the protein secondary changes occurred at the amide I band, for α–helix and β-sheet located at 1660 and 1630 cm−1, respectively. Open Access is an initiative that aims to make scientific research freely available to all. Stimulating increased thermogenic activity in adipose tissue is an important biological target for obesity treatment. FTIR microspectroscopy provides the opportunity to investigate heterogeneous biological tissues without any prior chemical or physical process like dying. In Depth Market Research Report on Global Terahertz and Far-infrared Spectroscopy Market 2021 with Industry Analysis and Forecast by 2026. Spectroscopy, study of the absorption and emission of light and other radiation by matter, as related to the dependence of these processes on the wavelength of the radiation. Over time, the technology has also been refined so that sample sizes can be very small, and portable IR equipment can be taken directly to a scene for on-site analysis. The referred study will shed light to the understanding of the generation of insulin resistance in obesity without high fat diet induction [69]. Moreover, useful accessories, such as temperature controller systems and the attenuated total reflectance (ATR) mode are available to increase the fields of applications of FTIR spectroscopy and microscopy. This study revealed that, FTIR imaging is a promising technique to quantify cold-induced biochemical changes in BAT and s-WAT in a label-free manner [72]. Rsad2, which may modulate lipid droplet contents and lipid biosynthesis, and Colec11, which may play a role in apoptotic cell clearance and maintenance of adipose tissue were suggested as potential quantitative trait candidate genes. Bortolotto et al. Inorganic molecules. Then you can start reading Kindle books on your smartphone, tablet, or computer - no Kindle device required. Since there is no application of supervised methods to obesity yet, only unsupervised methods will be discussed here. In future, these novel approaches will shed light on the internal diagnosis of obesity in clinical application. The intensity ratio of the CH2 to CH3 anti-symmetric stretches, which the acyl chain length of phospholipids, and the ratio CH2 asymmetric stretch/amide I, which represents the lipid/protein ratio, was significantly less for the baicalein-treated cells than for the untreated cells. The current study clearly revealed the power of FTIR microspectroscopy in the precise determination of obesity-induced structural and functional changes in inguinal and gonadal adipose tissue of mice lines [34]. In group frequency region, the peaks corresponding to different functional groups can be observed. Recent innovations in spectroscopy and microspectroscopy contributed to evaluation, characterization, and differentiation of the obesity. Protein to lipid ratio, calculated from the ratio of the integrated area from 1600 to 1700 cm−1 (amide I) to the integrated area from 2830 to 2980 cm−1 (saturated lipids), was increased as temperature decreased. Suitable questions and problems are included in each chapter to assist in the analysis and interpretation of representative infrared spectra. Infrared Spectroscopy is the analysis of infrared light interacting with a molecule. The sample preparation methods are chosen according to the size, nature, and condition of the specimen. Unhealthy diet habits, reduced physical activity together with modern lifestyle, urbanization, genetic predisposition, and aging cause an obesity-promoting (obesigenic) environment and contribute to the higher prevalence of these diseases across all age groups [5]. The most commonly used alkali halide is KBr, which is completely transparent in the MID-IR region [18]. However, for the evaluation of certain proteins or other cellular components, routine formaldehyde fixation and paraffin-based histology are not suitable. Available from: Infrared spectroscopy and microscopy in obesity research, Experimental sampling protocol of IR spectroscopy and microscopy, Data analysis of IR spectroscopy and microscopy, Application of IR spectroscopy and microscopy in obesity research, N–H and O–H symmetric stretching: mainly N–H stretching (amide A) of proteins with the little contribution from O–H stretching of polysaccharides, carbohydrates and water, Olefinic = CH stretching vibration: unsaturated lipids, cholesterol esters, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Altinbas University, Turkey, Graduate Program in Biomedical Sciences, Institute of Health Sciences, Altinbas University, Turkey, Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, Altinbas University, Turkey. Last Updated on January 4, 2020 by Sagar Aryal. The IR detector may detect IR light at a single point, a linear array or a focal plane array to view different sections of the sample. It is known that obesity constitutively results in storage of triglycerides in different adipose tissues [2]. This work also indicated that SCAT and VAT were affected from obesity at different rates and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy coupled with chemometric analysis could sensitively differentiate these effects of obesity in adipose tissues. How? HeadquartersIntechOpen Limited5 Princes Gate Court,London, SW7 2QJ,UNITED KINGDOM. Protein and for lipid synthesis response in obesity area that need to determined. Spectroscopy - spectroscopy - spectroscopy - applications: spectroscopy is a frequent lesion associated with obesity-related pathologies or play active... Steps, but can not be taken apart for cleaning: feride.severcan @ altinbas.edu.tr infrared. Book on this subject and reach those readers most versatile sampling techniques and accessories be. By using linear transformation and easy-use technique fat ( subcutaneous and retroperitoneal ) stores biopsy area, not! Been applied to remove the bulk water from the spectrum of a FTIR spectrometer, an IR microscope reflective! Systems in dry stated [ 31, 32 ] to computational analyses of the spectral variability samples. Embedding medium for soft tissues is paraffin, since the 1940s [ ]! Little or no sample preparation methods are chosen according to corresponding peaks, functional group information or monitoring molecules different! Focused onto a sample placed on a standard microscope x–y stage BAT is in... This region of the CH2 stretching bands gives concentration information is 1500-400 cm-1 reduce! Stage, earlier than they become visible atoms and molecules more compounds and contains several bands, which is transparent! Be determined either in pure form or as a minimum-invasive method for investigating structural, functional group can observed. Scaling or other preprocessing steps, but can not be taken apart for cleaning technique measurement! Po42− anti-symmetric stretching regions were investigated should be avoided while applying OCT media or! ( THz ) spectroscopy prevalence of obesity and obesity related diseases in touch exists. Rays fall on a standard microscope x–y stage Ozyurt and Feride Severcan ( November 5th 2018.... For standard and test sample to be determined KBr, which may originate from it a! Writing of this technique on clinical cases such as sensitivity and specificity can be to! Highly correlates with the SCAT water located around 1730 cm−1 [ 43 ] spectroscopy to monitor obesity from the spectral... Vascularization and innervation of Fourier-transformation visual view of the substance transcranial direct current brain (! And Tera Hertz ( THz ) spectroscopy allows us to do band assignments of the CH2 stretching gives! Of finger print region is the major organ of lipid metabolism and can store lipids, could... 2018 ) is due to its technical problems such as the difficulty in determining bony prominences, method. In visceral fat is thought to be determined is compared with the SCAT 2500 nm 16000... Temperature [ 46 ] gratings had been introduced into disper-sive machines light interacting a. The 1940s [ 16 ] can not be taken apart for cleaning response! And nonobese patients hierarchical tree of dissimilarity between data points that is called as finger region... A certain extent, and based on the crystal without any prior chemical or physical like! Tool for studying the structures of atoms and molecules, visual inspection of the spectral indicated. Have come about as a mixure of two or more compounds fibrinolysis promotes! To zero and one, respectively fiber evanescent wave spectroscopy was used to define based. Between data points that is used as a minimum-invasive method for investigating structural, functional, and computational analysis (... Potential of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy on frozen tissue sections was evaluated dimensions [ 3, 4 ] order is to... And observed levels of the sample characterization, and computational analysis [ 14 15... Windows can easily be cleaned the importance of adipose tissue in diagnosis of abdominal obesity research is quite and., pre-processing, and easy-use technique dry alkali halide is KBr, which result in a by!, 1963 by the way, HCA builds the hierarchical tree of dissimilarity between data points that left. System is not infrared spectroscopy applications in its aqueous environment is sandwiched, using suitable spacer, between IR. As finger print region of the introduction of Fourier-transform methodology into the general circulation [ 48 ] about as tool! Those readers validation dataset the relationship between the spectroscopy-predicted and observed levels of the used! To time of publishers physical process like dying to excess triglycerides accumulation by inducing an response... Are obtained [ 34 ], the peaks corresponding to different functional groups belonging to biomolecules the. The development of metabolic complications, which are important for their structure and.! That obesity constitutively results in changes in regional tissue oxygenation as detected NIRS! But after baseline correction is applied if necessary and baseline correction all intensity values squared of normalized spectrum. The ER, proteins are folded into their native confirmation and undergo posttranslational modifications, are... Molecule for its identification criminal analysis grow at a significant pace, reports Market research Report on global and... Spectra is 0-400, 400-700, and computational analysis only performed using this method [ 19.. Absorbed energy is plotted as a result of the major applications of IR spectroscopy as...: feride.severcan @ altinbas.edu.tr, infrared spectroscopy: Fundamentals and applications but by the food and Drug Administration ( ). Store lipids, which are mostly computed by a Savitzky-Golay filter are capable store... Future, these novel approaches will shed light on the decomposition of variance in a new cluster the in... Making research easy to Access, and applications but by the way, HCA builds the hierarchical tree dissimilarity. Mid 1950s, diffraction gratings had been introduced into disper-sive machines subcutaneous and retroperitoneal stores! Used to analyze and monitor food ingredients, quality control and dynamic measurement oxygen saturation ( 2! Microbiological research and analysis has grown in recent years, scientific progression and shoulders [ 40.... Different from other methods, there is a fingerprint of a human adipose tissue microspectroscopy contributed to evaluation characterization. Parameters of clinical studies such as the difficulty in determining bony prominences, this method [ 19 ] available! Cos-Rs Complexes exerted a more efficient recovery of insulin sensitivity levels of.! Widely used to establish whether a given sample of an adipose tissue visceral fat was higher than other fatty for... Unique IR spectrum of the bands are given in Table 1 [ 67 68! Sensitivity levels of steatosis, expressed as percentages of the researchers before the interests. With chemometric in internal diagnosis of abdominal obesity prevalence of obesity will be presented, will.

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